I have heard of Type I and Type II diabetes, but I came across an article today talking about Type 1.5. I know that scientists have been calling Alzheimer’s disease Type III disease for a while. Type 4 diabetes was also on the hit list of diabetes terms while doing some quick research today.
https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/diabetes.html Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a health condition created when your pancreas does not make and release insulin properly in response to increasing levels of blood glucose. Another condition defining diabetes is when your body cannot use insulin properly.
Diabetes is serious. Heart disease, vision loss, kidney disease, and more can result. One in ten people had diabetes at the turn of the century. Nearly one in five Americans have diabetes today, doubling in the past twenty years. It is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. The number one cause of kidney failure is diabetes.
Type I Diabetes (T1DM)
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-1-diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20353011 Once known as juvenile diabetes, T1DM is a chronic disorder in which your pancreas produces extraordinarily little or no insulin. T1DM causes are genetic or exposure to certain viruses, environmental factors, endocrine disease, autoimmune causes, or toxins. Removal or damage to the pancreas can also be a cause.
Some scientists deem T1DM an autoimmune condition because they believe the immune system destroyed the pancreas’ beta cells. Regardless of the cause, T1DM must be treated with insulin injections for patients to survive.
Symptoms commonly are increased thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, fatigue, blurred vision, mood changes, etc. Type I diabetes is usually found in children. However, it can develop later in life.
Type II Diabetes (T2DM)
https://www.diabetes.org/diabetes/type-2 T2DM is typically not found in children, but it can happen. The process of the pancreas creating insulin in response to blood sugar is compromised, and your body is not getting the required insulin for a healthy life. Many Type II diabetics are obese. Another name associated with Type II diabetes is adult-onset diabetes.
When your body cannot stabilize insulin production, T2DM can be managed with lifestyle changes such as physical activity and diet or oral medications. It may be necessary for people with T2DM to need insulin to control blood sugar levels.
Symptoms are like Type I diabetes, with a couple of exceptions. Click on https://aspe.hhs.gov/report/diabetes-national-plan-action/importance-early-diabetes-detection to determine the exact difference in symptoms.
Type III Diabetes (T3DM) and (T3cDM)
https://www.healthline.com/health/type-3-diabetes Some scientists classify Alzheimer’s disease as Type 3 diabetes (T3DM). Not all agree. Insulin resistance triggered by insulin-like growth factor dysfunction in the brain is believed to be the disease’s genesis.
Sixty percent of people with this dysfunction develop Alzheimer’s disease. T3DM is thought to be an extension flowing from T2DM. Over time, untreated diabetes damages blood vessels. Inflammation increases blood vessel damage and chemical imbalances from insulin resistance and can damage brain cells. Causes of T3DM are a family history of DM, high blood pressure, obesity, and other health issues.
T3cDM is a designation used and is also referred to as pancreatogenic diabetes. Your pancreas has endocrine and exocrine glands. Endocrine glands secrete hormones without ducts into the bloodstream.
Exocrine glands secrete hormones through ducts. Beta-islet cells in the Islets of Langerhans in your pancreas create and discharge insulin into the bloodstream. Chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and exocrine pancreatic cancer cause exocrine glands to become dysfunctional.
Symptoms of T3DM are primarily associated with memory loss.
Type 4 Diabetes (T4DM)
https://diabetesresearchconnection.org/new-type-4-diabetes-not-linked-to-obesity/ Not all diabetes is associated with insulin deficiency or obesity. A study was published a few years ago by the Salk Institute with old, lean laboratory animals. Immune system cell overactivity is judged to be the cause of this new form of diabetes.
Researchers think that twenty percent of Americans over 65 years of age may have this new version of diabetes. Not all health professionals concur. Most treatments for DM involve losing weight. This option is not effective when patients are not overweight. Existing DM drugs like Metformin are being used, but more research is needed.
Type 1.5 Diabetes (T1.5DM or LADA)
https://www.healthline.com/health/type-1-5-diabetes LADA, latent autoimmune diabetes in adults shares both traits of T1DM and T2DM. This form of diabetes usually occurs in later life. It is caused by your immune system and is not reversible with lifestyle changes. LADA is often misdiagnosed as T2DM. Ten percent of those with T2DM may have LADA, especially if you have T2DM and live a healthy and active lifestyle.
Symptoms of LADA are the same as DM. Untreated, LADA can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, in which your body produces excess ketones (blood acids) and not enough insulin.
Diagnosis of DM
https://www.diabetes.org/a1c/diagnosis DM can be diagnosed by testing blood sugar levels. The A1C, estimated average glucose test, averages blood sugar levels over time, usually two to three months. The measurements are percentages of your blood sugar levels. Less than 5.7% is considered normal. Any result over 6.5% is diabetic. In between, the term prediabetic is used to describe your condition.
The Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) test determines your fasting blood sugar levels. The normal range for FPG is less than 100 mg/dl. People with diabetes have numbers exceeding 126 mg/dl. Prediabetics are in between 100 and 126 mg/dl.
The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) measures blood sugar levels in two hours. This test determines how your body processes sugar. Typical findings are below 140 mg/dl. People with diabetes range above 200 mg/dl. The in-between range is considered prediabetes.
I believe annual physicals are necessary to track changes in your health. Yearly screening for diabetes is a routine test. Management and treatment of disease are best achieved when detected early.
I have reported previously that the University of Southern California has had remarkable success with five-day fasting and rebuilding beta cells in laboratory animals. Testing is continuing in humans.
Live Longer & Enjoy Life! – Red O’Laughlin – RedOLaughlin.com